Brontë, Juvenilia, Literature, Uncategorized

People and Places from the Brontë Juvenilia Part One: Glass Town and Angria

When setting up Brontë Babe Blog it was my intention to introduce readers to the Brontë juvenilia in the hope of inspiring people to actually read texts from Charlotte and Branwell’s Glass Town/Angrian saga. Sadly most of Emily and Anne’s writings have been lost to time and what remains is difficult to piece together and make sense of. A few years ago I began to write a post featuring an A-Z of Charlotte Brontë’s juvenilia. I published but never finished the post. I think there were several reasons for this but the main one being is that Charlotte’s juvenilia is very difficult to separate from that of her siblings. As stated above, Anne and Emily broke away to form their own world of Gondal with Charlotte and Branwell developing Glass Town and moving towards Angria. Four siblings were writing about different but connected worlds, sometimes in collaboration with one another, and sometimes separately. Occasionally these worlds would also cross over with characters appearing in Glass Town, Angria, and Gondal narratives. These characters sometimes have several different aliases and the spellings are not always consistent. Additionally, these characters continued to develop as the writings progressed with some remarkable transformations (Douro to Zamorna being the most obvious example). Consequently, creating any kind of definitive guide is very difficult. What follows below is a short list of main characters and prominent places from Glass Town and Angria with a (sometimes very) brief description. This is barely a snapshot of an epic saga, but hopefully, it’s a good place to start for readers wanting to become more familiar with these worlds. One day I’ll put all of this in a book, I swear. If you are looking for more of a history of the Brontë juvenilia and individual narratives, then head over to my page The Brontë Juvenilia to find out more. Stay tuned for the Gondal list. Reader, enjoy.


Glass Town and Angria Characters

Alexander Percy a.k.a Rogue; Colonel Augustus Percy; Earl of Northangerland; Lord Ellrington – Percy is one of the most prominent characters in the Glass Town and Angrian tales. Originally a creation of Branwell Brontë, Percy began life as a pirate named Rogue (Rougue) and in addition to becoming a favourite character and pseudonym of Branwell, he was incorporated into Charlotte Brontë’s work, becoming one of the primary antagonists of her narratives. Percy has many aliases throughout the juvenilia, including Lord Ellrington (Elrington) and the Earl of Northangerland; he also sometimes adopts the role of a hypocritical Methodist preacher named Ashworth.  A charismatic demagogue and political revolutionary who eventually becomes the Prime Minister of Angria after helping his son-in-law, Zamorna, become King of Angria. Percy has many mistresses and is thrice married, firstly to the exotic Italian beauty Augusta di Segovia during a wayward youth spent drinking and gambling. After his first wife is poisoned he marries Maria Henrietta Wharton and lives happily, seemingly a reformed character until her death from consumption. Heartbroken by her death, he returns to his wild and debauched lifestyle, which is documented in The Duke of Zamorna (1838). Percy ends the saga married to Lady Zenobia Ellrington, a beautiful and formidable blue-stocking who actually pines for his son-in-law, Zamorna. He is father to Mary (third wife of Zamorna), William, Edward, and Henry (who are disowned at birth by him) by Maria Henrietta. He is also the father of the illegitimate Caroline Vernon, whose mother is Percy’s former mistress, Louisa Vernon. He has a complicated love-hate relationship with Zamorna which plays out throughout the writings and is further complicated by Mary’s marriage to the latter in addition to Zenobia’s own passion for him.

Alexander Sneaky (Sneachie) a.k.a. King of Sneaky’s Land – Replaces Napoleon as the chief man of Branwell Brontë in the Young Men’s Play. Sneaky is the ruler of Sneaky’s Land and the father of the Duke of Fidena, General Thornton, Princess Edith, and Princess Maria. He is an ally of the Duke of Wellington.

Arthur Augustus Adrian Wellesley a.k.a. Marquis of Douro; Duke of Zamorna; King of Angria – Zamorna is an early pseudonym of Charlotte Brontë and son of the Duke of Wellington. Introduced alongside his younger brother, Lord Charles Wellesley, in Charlotte Brontë’s An Adventure in Ireland (1829), Zamorna, along with Alexander Percy, dominates the Glass Town and Angrian stories. Thrice married to Helen Gordon, Marian Hume, and Mary Percy, Zamorna also has several mistresses including Mina Laury. In his early incarnation as Douro, he is a handsome, noble, and talented poet and patron of the arts. Zamorna has many strings to his bow, and is even resurrected after dying in Charlotte’s The Foundling (1833). He later develops into a libertine and political and military leader under the guidance of his eventual father-in-law, the despot Alexander Percy. The two play out an intense love-hate relationship throughout the Glass Town and Angrian stories with Zamorna using his wife Mary, daughter of Percy, as a pawn. Zamorna later keeps Percy’s mistress Louisa Vernon, a prisoner and becomes guardian to Louisa and Percy’s daughter, Caroline, who harbours a passion for the King. Zamorna is awarded the Kingdom of Angria by the Verdopolitan government following his success in the War of Encroachment against the Ashantees. He initially appoints Percy as Prime Minister who later turns against him alongside Ardrah and the Reformist Party. After several invasions, Zamorna is exiled, but he later successfully reclaims Angria with the help of characters such as the Duke of Fidena and Warner Howard Warner.

Arthur Wellesley a.k.a. Duke of Wellington – Based on the historical Duke of Wellington, he is Charlotte Brontë’s chief man in The Young Men’s Play. In the Glass Town texts he is King of Wellingtonsland and leader of the four Kings of the Glass Town Federation. Rival to Branwell Brontë’s chief man, Naopleon, Wellington is the father of Arthur, Maquis of Douro (later Zamorna) and Lord Charles Wellesley. Admired for his military victories and leadership qualities, he is eventually superseded in the Glass Town narratives by his sons, who continue to dominate the tales until the final Angrian stories.

Ashantees -The Ashantees were originally wooden ninepins who represented Native Africans and were the enemies of the Young Men in the Brontës’ earliest tales. In the narratives they are natives of the Kingdom of Ashantee, an area of West Africa colonized by the Twelves in the earliest stories. They later became allies of the Verdopolitan Reform Ministry and Alexander Percy against Angria.

Captain Tree – In the Glass Town stories such as The Poetaster (1830) Tree is a celebrated novelist. He is also an early pseudonym of Charlotte Brontë and rival to Lord Charles Wellesley. Sergeant Tree, Glass Town’s chief bookseller and publisher, is his son.

Caroline Vernon – The illegitimate daughter of Northangerland and Louisa Vernon, and half-sister to Mary, Henry, Edward, and Sir William Percy. Caroline first appears briefly as a child in Charlotte’s novelette Julia (1837). However, she appears again as a teenager in The Duke of Zamorna (1838) and Caroline Vernon (1839) where she lives with her mother who has been imprisoned by Zamorna at Eden Cottage near Fidena, a city in the Verdopolitan Union. She becomes increasingly attracted to Zamorna, her brother-in-law, legal guardian, and also her mother’s gaoler. Despite Percy’s best efforts to check her feelings, Caroline finds her way back to Zamorna, possibly becoming another of his mistresses and pawn in the ongoing battle for power between Percy and Zamorna.

Charles Wellesley (Lord) a.k.a. Charles Townshend – Youngest son of the Duke of Wellington and brother to Zamorna, Lord Charles Albert Florian Wellesley is one of the most prominent characters to feature in the Glass Town and Angrian stories. He is also the favourite pseudonym of Charlotte Brontë throughout the narratives. Charles originates as a spoiled and often spiteful child prodigy and author who is a witty observer of Glass Town society, serial gossip, and snoop who frequently reports on the love affairs and political scandals of Zamorna. Although he does not officially appear in the Brontë juvenilia until his introduction in the The First Volume of the Tales of the Islanders (June 30th 1829), the unnamed narrator of Charlotte’s An Adventure in Ireland from a few months earlier has a tone and style suspiciously like Charles. By 1836 he has distanced himself from his family and evolved into the fashionable figure of Charles Townshend, a dandy and struggling author who writes/narrates most of Charlotte’s Angrian novelettes. However, he is relegated to the role of co-narrator in Henry Hastings (1839) alongside his former friend, Sir William Percy, which may be a curious prelude to the opening of Charlotte’s novel The Professor (published 1857).

Charlotte Brontë meets Charles Wellesley by Isabel Greenberg

Edward Hartford (Lord) – A nobleman and a member of one of Angria’s oldest families. A respected General and commander of troops in Zamorna’s army, he seemingly has everything, however, he falls in love with Zamorna’s favourite mistress, Mina Laury in the novelette of the same name. Following Mina’s rejection, Hartford drunkenly duels with Zamorna, and sustains injuries he is still recovering from during the events of Stancliffe’s Hotel (1838).

Edward Percy – Eldest son of Alexander Percy and his second wife, Maria Henrietta Wharton. Edward is also brother to Mary, Henry, and William, and half-brother to Caroline Vernon. Disowned by his father at birth due to his aversion to male children, he has a frosty relationship with his father and siblings, particularly William. The brothers work in a sweat shop before starting a wool combing business. Edward is depicted as a ruthless tradesman and industrialist who eventually becomes the Angrian minister of trade, and treats William harshly after appointing him as a clerk in his counting house. Edward builds his own empire by acquiring factories and mills along the Olympia River in Angria. He marries Princess Maria Sneachie. The warring brothers would later reappear in Charlotte Brontë’s novel The Professor (published 1857) as the Crimsworths.

Elizabeth Hastings – A teacher and companion to society beauty Jane Moore. Appearing in just a single Angrian tale, Henry Hastings (1839),  she is independent and earns her own living. However, her devotion to her disgraced brother, Captain Henry Hastings, results in unhappiness and she risks the wrath of the law to protect him. Proud, loyal, and moral, she is seen by many critics and readers as a precursor to Jane Eyre due to her rejection of Sir William Percy, who desires her to become his mistress.

Frederic Lofty (Lord Viscount) a.k.a. Earl of Arundel – A friend and ally of Zamorna who is given his title upon the creation of Angria. He is an accomplished horseman and a respected field marshal in the Angrian army whose troops come to Zamorna’s aid during the Angrian civil war. He is married to Edith Sneachie and is the brother of Lord Macara Lofty. Although seemingly killed at the Battle of Velino, he appears to be resurrected by S’death in an early example of literary retcon.

Frederick Stuart Castlereagh (Lord) a.k.a Earl of Stuartville – An Irishman, dandy and Angrian minister. He is initiated into a secret society named Elysium by Rogue and Hector Montmorency whose real intention is to rob him of his fortune. Castlereagh does indeed lose his fortune at one point through gambling debts. He is then awarded the position of Secretary of the Foreign Office by the Marquis of Douro in return for rescuing Lady Julia Montmorency from an unwanted marriage to General Thornton. He is an early friend of Douro/Zamorna who makes him an Earl. He distinguishes himself in battle in the War of Encroachment.

Genii – The four Chief Genii are Talli, Branni, Emmi, and Anni (spellings vary) who are supernatural beings and guardians in the Glass Town stories. They represent the four surviving Brontë children within the stories, with their origins arguably being the characters of the Little King and Queens in the Tales of the Islanders, however, they do not appear in the later Angrian narratives. The Genii inhabit Jibbel Kumri.

Hector Montmonrency a.k.a Montmorenci- A Verdopoltian nobleman and wayward companion of Alexander Percy in his youth before becoming a political ally in his wars against Zamorna. Hector Matthias Mirabeau was born in Wellingtonsland but in the later tales he has been exiled to Paris where he attempts to seduce Percy’s teenage daughter, Caroline Vernon, in the the 1839 novelette of the same name. He marries Harriet O’Connor, one of Percy’s mistresses. His daughters are Julia and Harriet.

Helen Gordon (Lady) a.ka. Baroness Gordon – First wife of Zamorna, and Scottish heriress known as the “Lily of Loch Stuart”. Helen Victorine died giving birth to Zamorna’s son, Ernest Edward Gordon Wellesley. Her brother is Capatin Julius Gordon, an early associate of Percy.

Henri Fernando di Enara – A fierce and wild Italian General nicknamed “The Tiger”. A friend of Lord Hartford and Zamorna, he is also the commander of the Angrian forces and governor of the province of Etrei.

Henry Hastings (Captain) – Originally a much used pseudonym of Branwell Brontë, Henry Hastings originates as a soldier, poet, and historian of Angria, however, by the time he features in Charlotte’s novelette, Henry Hastings (1839), he is a disgraced murderer seeking to evade capture. He is the brother of Elizabeth Hastings.

James Bellingham – Belligham is a rare Englishman in the writings. A rich banker, he travels through Glass Town with Lord Charles Wellesley and the Marquis of Douro and his adventures are documented in Branwell Brontë’s Letters from an Englishman (1830-32). He later plays a prominent role in Zamorna’s Angrian Wars.

Jane Moore – A society beauty and daughter of a prominent Angrian barrister who is known as “The Rose of Zamorna.” Elizabeth Hastings is her companion for a period.

John Bud (Captain) – An eminent political writer and historian in the Glass Town stories who is the author of The History of the Young Men (1830-1). He is a good friend of Lord Charles Wellesley and the father of the lawyer, Sergeant Bud. He is initially one of Branwell Brontë’s pseudonyms.

John Flower (Captain Sir) a.k.a. Viscount Richton – Flower is an early pseudonym of Branwell Brontë who narrates tales including The Politics of Verdopolis (1833), Real Life in Verdopolis (1833), and The Wool is Rising (1834). Flower is an eminent Glass Town writer and scholar, and chronicler of the Angrian Wars. He is also Verdopolitan ambassador to Angria.

John Gifford – Lawyer, antiquarian, and a learned historian who aids Captain John Bud.

John Ross (Captain) a.k.a. King of Ross’s Land – Anne Brontë’s chief man in The Young Men’s Play. Ross is a friend and ally of Emily Brontë’s chief man, Parry. He is also the father of Edward Tut Ross, Marquis of Harlow who is an opponent of Zamorna. Ross Jr. is close friends with Arthur, Marquis of Ardrah, son of Emily Brontë’s chief man, Parry.

Julia Wellesley a.k.a. Julia Thornton – A cousin of Zamorna and Charles Wellesley/Townshend. In the Glass Town stories, she marries Edward Sydney, however, she later becomes Julia Thornton, wife of General Thornton.

Louisa Vernon a.k.a. Louisa Dance – Louisa first appears in the Brontës’ stories as Louisa Allan, an opera singer. Twice married, firstly to Lord George Vernon (sometimes known as Lord Dance), and secondly to the uncle of Charles and Zamorna, Richard, Marquis of Wellesley. She eventually becomes the mistress of Alexander Percy who fathers her daughter, Caroline. After Percy fails to execute Zamorna during a period of civil war she leaves him, becoming the mistress of Lord Macara Lofty, as is evident from Stancliffe’s Hotel (1838). However, by the time Charlotte wrote Caroline Vernon (1839), Louisa is demanding and emotionally unstable, probably due to the fact she is a prisoner of Zamorna. She ends the tales living in exile with Caroline at Eden Cottage in the city of Fidena.

Macara Lofty (Lord) – Younger brother of Frederic Lofty. In the earlier narratives, Lofty is a member of the Verdopolitan government and leader of the Republican Rebellion.  By the end of the Angrian tales he has become the drug addicted lover of Louisa Vernon and associate of the wandering figure and struggling writer Charles Townshend.

Marian Hume a.k.a. Florence Marian Hume – The second wife of Zamorna in the earlier narratives and the mother of his son, Arthur Julius Wellesley. In texts such as High Life in Verdopolis (1834) it is hinted that her death was the result of a broken heart aged just seventeen due to her husband’s infidelities. However, in The Spell (1834), consumption is given as her cause of death, an affliction which also claims the life of her son. Her father is Dr. Alexander Hume, the Duke of Wellington’s physician.

Mary Percy a.k.a Duchess of Zamorna, Queen of Angria – Mary Henrietta Percy is Zamorna’s third wife and mother of his children, legitimate daughter of Alexander Percy, sister to Edward and Sir William Percy, and half-sister to Caroline Vernon. She first appears in Branwell Brontë’s narrative The Politics of Verdopolis (1834), and later became one of Charlotte Brontë’s favourite characters. At one point in the juvenilia, she is abandoned and rejected by Zamorna who desires revenge on her father and is sent to Alnwick where she is killed off by Branwell whilst, in reality, Charlotte was away at school. A devastated Charlotte later chose to resurrect her heroine in what must be another of literature’s earliest examples of retcon. Charlotte’s Roe Head Journal (c.1836-7) is a fascinating piece which mixes reality and fantasy, and records Charlotte fretting over Branwell’s treatment of Mary.

Mina Laury – Mina is the daughter of  Sergeant Edward “Ned” Laury, a soldier turned bodysnatcher who later becomes loyal to the Duke of Wellington. Mina is a prominent character due to her relationship with Zamorna. Originally maid to his mother, the Duchess of Wellington and then to his second wife, Marian Hume, Mina becomes Zamorna’s favourite and most loyal mistress, even acting as a mother figure to his young children following Marian’s death. She resides at Rivaulx in the Hawkescliffe estate, seemingly living to serve Zamorna, and at one point in the stories chooses to follow him into exile. However, she is a complicated figure who is shown by Charlotte Brontë to be independent and active in many respects in tales such as The Spell (1834), Passing Events (1836), and Mina Laury (1838). The teenage Caroline Vernon is particularly fascinated by her and Lord Hartford is in love with her.

Napoleon Buonaparte – Originally Branwell Brontë’s chief man in the Young Men’s Play, antagonist of Glass Town, and rival to Charlotte Brontë’s chief man, Wellington. Napoleon is the ruler of Frenchyland and opponent to the Glass Town Federation. He was succeeded as chief man by Sneaky, and then by Rogue (Percy).

Prince John Sneachi a.k.a. Duke of Fidena – The heir to the throne of Sneachiesland and eventual leader of the Constitutionalists in Verdopolis. Fidena is also brother to General Thornton and Princesses Edith and Maria Sneachi. Despite his apparent antipathy to Zamorna, he is his most trusted and respected friend who helps him to regain power following his exile.

Quashia Quamina Kashna – Son of the King of the Ashantees, Sai Too Too Quamina, he is adopted by the Duke of Wellington as an infant after the death of his father. There is friction and bitterness between Quashia and Wellington’s oldest son, Zamorna, and in the later tales he aids his ally, Alexander Percy, in his invasion of Angria against Zamorna. He also desires and lusts after Percy’s two daughters, Mary Percy (who is also the wife of his enemy and adopted brother, Zamorna), and Caroline Vernon.

Robert Patrick S’death – A later incarnation of Chief Genius Brannii, S’death is a villainous character and associate of the young Alexander Percy, but still murders his father and wife. He is demonic and seemingly immortal and indestructible.

Thornton Wilkin (Wilson) Sneaky (Sneachi) a.k.a. General Thornton – Thornton originates as the second son of the King of Sneachiesland and brother to the Duke of Fidena, Princess Edith Sneaky, and Princess Maria Sneaky who is disowned by his family due to his wild youth. Later adopted by “Old Girnington” and inherits his estate, he is made a General by Zamorna and also appointed guardian to Lord Charles Wellesley. However, it it clear that by the time of the events of the Angrian novelettes such as Stancliffe’s Hotel (1838), Thornton has an aversion to the newly named Charles Townshend.

The Twelves – Originally Branwell Brontë’s set of twelve toy soldiers, they became characters in the Brontës’ tales who were discoverers and explorers. Branwell lists the (13) Twelves as: Butter Crashey, Alexander Cheeky, Arthur Wellesley, William Edward Parry, Alexander Sneaky, John Ross, William Bravey, Edward Gravey, Frederick Guelph, Stumps, Monkey, Tracky, Cracky. Charlotte Brontë lists the names of the Twelves as: Marcus O’Donell, Ferdinand Cortez, Felix de Rothsay, Eugene Cameron, Harold Fitzgeorge, Henry Clinton, Francis Stewart, Ronald Traquair, Ernest Fortescue, Gustavus Dunally, Frederick Brunswick, and Arthur Wellesley.

Warner Howard Warner – Warner succeeds Alexander Percy as the Prime Minister of Angria in the tales. Based on Sir Robert Peel, Warner’s relationship with Zamorna is thought to reflect that of Peel and the historical Duke of Wellington. Warner is an upright and hard-working ally of Zamorna and the head of one of Angria’s most important and influential families. Interestingly, he has the gift of second sight.

William Edward Parry (Sir) a.k.a. King of Parry’s Land – Emily Brontë’s chief man in the Young Men’s Play. Parry’s Land does not feature greatly in the Glass Town stories, one exception being Charlotte’s narrative, A Day at Parry’s Palace (1830). Parry is the father of Arthur, Marquis of Ardrah, leader of the Reformers in Verdopolis and Commander of the Verdopolitan Navy. Like his friend, Edward Tut Ross, Ardrah opposes Zamorna and the creation of Angria.

William Percy (Sir) – Son of Alexander Percy and his second wife, Maria Henrietta Wharton. Sir William is also brother to Mary, Henry, and Edward, and half-brother to Caroline Vernon. Disowned by his father at birth due to his aversion to male children, he is ill-treated by Edward and his father, but is on friendlier terms with Mary as is evident from texts such as Henry Hastings (1839). He becomes a diplomat and lieutenant in the Angrian army. At times depicted as a dandy alongside his friend Charles Townshend, the two eventually drift apart with Sir William occupying a more serious role in the stories and society. He is attracted to Elizabeth Hastings who rejects his offer to become his mistress.

Zenobia Ellrington (Lady) a.k.a. Countess of Northangerland – Daughter of the Earl of Elrington and sister to Alsand, Myrtillus, and Surena, Zenobia is also the third wife of Alexander Percy who adopts her title following their marriage. Branwell Brontë’s tale The Pirate (1833) depicts their meeting on board the ship named The Rover. She is a beautiful and formidable bluestocking who harbours a passion for her husband’s son-in-law, Zamorna, and is a rival to his first wife, Marian, for his love. She remains married to Percy throughout the narratives despite his infidelities. 

Glass Town and Angria Places

Map drawn by Branwell Brontë

Adrianopolis – The capital of the province of Angria, It is situated around 150 miles from the former capital, Verdopolis.

Alnwick House (Alnwick Castle) – The ancestral home of the Percy family. It is situated in Sneaky’s Land in the north-west of the Glass Town Federation.

Angria – The principal setting for much of Charlotte and Branwell Brontë’s later juvenilia. However, it is slightly more complicated that it initially seems. The Kingdom of Angria has seven provinces: Angria, Arundel, Calabar, Douro, Etrei, Northangerland, and Zamorna. It was created for one of the principal characters, Zamorna, by the Verdopolitan Parliament in 1834 as a reward for his success in war.

Bravey’s Inn – An inn named after one of the Twelves, William Bravey. It is also a central meeting place for the Young Men, politicians, and writers.

Coomassie – The capital of the Kingdom of Ashantee. It had 50,000 inhabitants and was destroyed by an attack from the Twelves.

Edwardston – Named after eventual Angrian minister for trade, Edward Percy. Located in Zamorna in Angria it is on the bank of the Olympia River and is the site of Zamorna’s defeat to Percy and his Reformists in the Angrian civil war.

Ellrington House – The home of Percy and Zenobia (Lord and Lady Ellrington) in Verdopolis.

Freetown – The capital city of Sneaky’s Land. It was of strtegic importance during the War of Encroachment.

Frenchyland – An island established by Branwell Brontë in the early stories due to his interest in French politics and Napoleon Bonaparte. The island is south of the Great Glass Town in the Gulf of Guinea. The capital is Paris.

Girnington Hall – Estate inherited by General Thornton. It is a Gothic country house located at the upper end of the Valley of Verdopolis.

Glass Town Federation (later Verdopolitan Union) – Carved out of the Kingdom of Ashantee by the Twelves, it is united by the Kings of Wellington’s Land, Sneaky’s Land, Parry’s Land, and Ross’s Land. The federal capital is the Great Glass Town.

Hawkescliffe – A country estate belonging to Zamorna in the province of Angria, it includes Hawkescliffe Forest and Hawkescliffe House.

Jibbel Kumri – Also known as The Mountains of the Moon, they are home to the Chief Genii in the early Glass Town stories.

Kingdom of Ashantee – Based on the historical Ashanti Empire of the 18th and 19th centuries, in the Brontë juvenilia it is an area of West Africa that is colonized by the Twelves. It consists of a series of countries which extend 500 miles from north to south, and 1700 miles from east to west.

Monkey’s Isle a.k.a. Moncey’s Island – An island south-west of Verdopolis which is ruled by Monkey, a former soldier and character from The Young Men’s Play. Along with Stumps Land it is considered to be suitable only for things such as seaside holidays.

Mornington Court – Home of the Wellesley family in Wellington’s Land.

Parry’s Land a.k.a. Parrisland – Ruled by Emily Brontë’s chief man, Captain Sir William Edward Parry, Parry’s Land is one of the four Glass Town kingdoms. It has strong links to Yorkshire and is considered quaint and old-fashioned by Glass Towners. Charlotte Brontë describes it her story A Day at Parry’s Palace (1830) when Lord Charles Wellesley pays a visit.

Percy Hall – The hall is the country residence of the Percy family in Wellington’s Land. Alexander Percy and his daughter Mary Percy were both born here. Lady Helen Percy, Alexander’s mother, resides here.

Philosopher’s Island – The site of the university where the Glass Town nobility are educated in the mysteries of life and death by Manfred the magician. Students are sworn not to misuse their knowledge. Charlotte Brontë’s narrative The Foundling (1833) is partly set here.

Ross’s Land a.k.a. Rossesland – One of the four Glass Town kingdoms, it is located in the south-west of the Glass Town Federation. The Kingdom of Anne Brontë’s chief man, Captain John Ross.

Senegambia a.k.a. Wellingtonsland or Wellington’s Land – Senegambia is ruled by the Duke of Wellington. The River Gambia flows through it. One of the four Glass Town Kingdoms.

Sneaky’s Land a.k.a. Sneachiesland – The Kingdom of Alexander Sneaky which is one of the four Glass Town Kingdoms. It lies in the north of the Glass Town Federation.

Stumps Land a.k.a Stumps Island – An island south-west of Verdopolis which is ruled by Stumps, a character from The Young Men’s Play. Along with Monkey’s Isle it is considered to be suitable only for things such as seaside holidays.

Tower of All Nations – Home of Crashey, the great patriarch. The tower rises 6,000 feet and is modelled on the Tower of Babylon.

Verdopolis (Glass Town or Glasstown) – The federal capital of the Glass Town Federation. It is located in the Gulf of Guinea at the mouth of the River Niger. Its famous landmarks include Bravey’s Inn, the Tower of All Nations, and St. Michael’s Cathedral.

Waterloo Palace – Home of the Duke of Wellington in Verdopolis.

Wellesley House – The home of the Duke of Zamorma in Verdopolis.

I hope this has helped someone somewhere to make a bit more sense of the people and places in the Brontë juvenilia. As I said above, stay tuned for my piece on Gondal.

By Nicola F. a.k.a. The Brontë Babe. 

Thanks for reading. I’d love it if you stopped by The Journal of Juvenilia Studies where you can read my essay, “Autobiography, Wish-Fulfilment, and Juvenilia. The ‘Fractured Self’ in Charlotte Brontë’s Paracosmic Counterworld”.

Please do not copy, share, or use the images from this post without seeking permission first.

*Illustration of Charlotte and Charles is drawn by Isabel Greenberg and taken from her book Glass Town (2020) which is published in the UK by Jonathan Cape*



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